Article 72. General provisions.
72.1. Use of the term "type" relating to specimens. The term "type" forms part of many compound terms used by taxonomists to distinguish between particular kinds of specimens, only some of which are name-bearing types. For the purposes of the Code, three categories of specimens are regulated, namely
72.1.1. type series: all the specimens on which the author established a nominal species-group taxon (with the exception of those excluded [Art. 72.4.1]); in the absence of holotype designation, or the designation of syntypes, or the subsequent designation of a lectotype, all are syntypes and collectively they constitute the name-bearing type;
72.1.2. name-bearing types: specimens with a name-bearing function, whether fixed originally (holotype [Art. 73.1] or syntypes [Art. 73.2]) or fixed subsequently (lectotype [Art. 74] or neotype [Art. 75]);
72.1.3. other specimens: those without a name-bearing function (paratypes [Art. 72.4.5], paralectotypes [Arts. 73.2.2, 74.1.3]; see Glossary for definitions).
Recommendation 72A. Use of the term "allotype". The term "allotype" may be used to indicate a specimen of opposite sex to the holotype; an "allotype" has no name-bearing function.
72.2. Fixation of name-bearing types from type series of nominal species-group taxa established before 2000. A nominal species-group taxon established before 2000 may have its name-bearing type fixed from the type series [Art. 72.4] originally [Art. 73], or subsequently [Art. 74]. (If no name-bearing type is believed to be extant a neotype may be fixed; see Article 75 for conditions).
72.3. Name-bearing types must be fixed originally for nominal species-group taxa established after 1999. A proposal of a new nominal species-group taxon after 1999 (unless denoted by a new replacement name (nomen novum) [Arts. 16.4, 72.7]), must include the fixation of a holotype [Art. 16.4] (see Article 73.1) or syntypes [Art. 73.2]. In the case of syntypes, only those specimens expressly indicated by the author to be those upon which the new taxon was based are fixed as syntypes.
72.4. Type series.
72.4.1. The type series of a nominal species-group taxon consists of all the specimens included by the author in the new nominal taxon (whether directly or by bibliographic reference), except any that the author expressly excludes from the type series [Art. 72.4.6], or refers to as distinct variants (e.g. by name, letter or number), or doubtfully attributes to the taxon.
220.127.116.11. For a nominal species or subspecies established before 2000, any evidence, published or unpublished, may be taken into account to determine what specimens constitute the type series.
Example. Linnaeus (1758) described the gastropod Conus imperialis, and cited specimens described or illustrated by previous authors. The type series included not only those cited specimens, but also two other specimens currently in collections in Uppsala and London of which there is evidence that they were known to Linnaeus and recognized by him as C. imperialis when the nominal species was established.
72.4.2. If a new nominal species-group taxon is based, in whole or in part, on a published misidentification by an earlier author, the type series consists of or includes the specimen or specimens which had been misidentified, whether the later author refers to them directly or through an illustration or a description (but see Recommendation 73B).
72.4.3. The type series of a nominal species-group taxon of which the name was first published as a junior synonym, but was made available before 1961 under the provisions of Article 11.6, consists of the specimen (or specimens) cited with that name in the published synonymy, or, if none was cited there, denoted by that name when it was adopted as the name of a taxon.
72.4.4. The type series of a nominal species-group taxon of which the name is made available by a bibliographic reference to a description or definition associated with an unavailable name [Arts. 12.2.1, 13.1.2] consists of or includes the specimen or specimens denoted by that unavailable name.
72.4.5. When an author designates a holotype [Art. 73.1], then the other specimens of the type series are paratypes. The latter do not become syntypes and cannot be used for lectotype selection [Art. 74] if the holotype is lost or destroyed; however, they are eligible for neotype selection (see Recommendation 75A).
72.4.6. If an author when establishing a nominal species-group taxon nominates either "syntypes" (by that term, or by use of one of the terms "cotypes" or "types" alone), or "holotype and paratypes" used together (or by use of the term "type" together with "allotype" or "cotypes"), and also lists other specimens, the separate mention of the latter expressly excludes them from the type series.
72.4.7. The mere citation of "Type" or equivalent expression, in a published work other than that in which the nominal species-group taxon is established, or in an unpublished catalogue of a museum, or on a label, is not necessarily evidence that a specimen is or is fixed as any of the kinds of types referred to in this Chapter.
Recommendation 72B. Express exclusion from the type series or syntypes. Authors excluding specimens from the type series (or from the syntypes) of new nominal species-group taxa should be explicit. For example, illustrating some, but not all, or indicating specimen numbers of one or some specimens, but not others, would not in itself exclude those specimens not illustrated or not numbered.
72.5. Eligibility as name-bearing types. Only the following are eligible to be a name-bearing type, or part of a name-bearing type, of a nominal species-group taxon:
72.5.1. an animal, or any part of an animal, or an example of the fossilized work of an animal, or of the work of an extant animal if the name based on it was established before 1931;
72.5.2. a colony of animals that exists in nature as a single entity, derived by asexual or vegetative multiplication from a single individual (e.g. a colony of cnidarians, such as corals), or part of such a colony;
72.5.3. in the case of fossils, a natural replacement, natural impression, natural mould, or natural cast of an animal or colony, or part of either;
72.5.4. in extant species of protistans, one or more preparations of directly related individuals representing differing stages in the life cycle (a hapantotype) [Art. 73.3];
72.5.5. a preparation for microscope examination (e.g. a "type slide") containing one or more individual organisms, in which the name-bearing types are clearly indicated and identifiable.
Recommendation 72C. Marking of important individuals. Whenever possible, authors establishing new nominal species-group taxa based upon microscope preparations containing more than one specimen (a "type slide") should mark distinctly the locations of specimens which are considered to be of crucial importance in demonstrating the taxonomic characters.
72.5.6. In the case of a nominal species-group taxon based on an illustration or description, or on a bibliographic reference to an illustration or description, the name-bearing type is the specimen or specimens illustrated or described (and not the illustration or description itself).
72.6. Specimens that are already name-bearing types. The fact that a specimen is already the name-bearing type, or part of the name-bearing type, of one nominal species-group taxon does not prevent its being the name-bearing type, or part of the name-bearing type, of another.
72.7. Name-bearing types of nominal species-group taxa denoted by new replacement names (nomina nova). If an author proposes a new species-group name expressly as a replacement (a nomen novum) for an earlier available one, then the two names are objective synonyms; both the nominal taxa they denote have the same name-bearing type despite any simultaneous restriction or application of the new replacement name (nomen novum) to particular specimens or any contrary designation of type, or any different taxonomic usage of the new replacement name.
Examples. Mus terraereginae Alston, 1879 was a new replacement name (nom. nov.) for Mus leucopus (Gray, 1867), a secondary homonym of Mus leucopus Rafinesque, 1818; accordingly, both have the same name-bearing type. Betpakodiscus aliminimus Brenckle, 1993 was established as a "nom. nov." for Archaediscus minimus Reitlinger, 1950 sensu Grozdilova & Lebedeva (1953). B. aliminimus and A. minimus do not have the same name-bearing type because "Archaediscus minimus Grozdilova & Lebedeva, 1953, non Reitlinger 1950" is not an available name (the name-bearing type of B. aliminimus Brenckle, 1993 is fixed through the provisions of Article 72.4.4).
72.8. Name-bearing types of nominotypical subspecies. A nominal species and its nominotypical subspecies have the same name-bearing type [Arts. 47.1, 61.2].
72.9. Union of nominal species-group taxa. If two or more nominal species-group taxa are included within a single taxonomic taxon at the same rank in the species-group, their respective name-bearing types remain unchanged (subject to Article 23, the valid name of the taxonomic taxon so formed is that of the nominal species-group taxon with the oldest potentially valid name).
72.10. Value of name-bearing types. Holotypes, syntypes, lectotypes and neotypes are the bearers of the scientific names of all nominal species-group taxa (and indirectly of all animal taxa). They are the international standards of reference that provide objectivity in zoological nomenclature and must be cared for as such (see Recommendations 72D to 72F). They are to be held in trust for science by the persons responsible for their safe keeping.
Recommendation 72D. Labelling of name-bearing types. Holotypes, syntypes, lectotypes and neotypes should be labelled in a way that will unmistakably denote their status.
Recommendation 72E. Publication of information on labels. An author who designates a holotype, lectotype, neotype or syntypes should publish all information that appears on the labels accompanying the specimens so as to facilitate the future recognition of the specimens.
Recommendation 72F. Institutional responsibility. Every institution in which name-bearing types are deposited should
72F.1 ensure that all are clearly marked so that they will be unmistakably recognized as name-bearing types;
72F.2 take all necessary steps for their safe preservation;
72F.3 make them accessible for study;
72F.4 publish lists of name-bearing types in its possession or custody; and
72F.5 so far as possible, communicate information concerning name-bearing types when requested.
Preamble | Articles 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 | Glossary Appendices Constitution
The criteria in Art. 75.3.7. could be applied for all primary types of newly established names. Proposal suggested in a discussion in Feb/Mar 2016 ("Holotypes for sale"), starting point was a sales offer on E-Bay that induced a debate if the conditions of 72.10 are fulfilled if in such an auction the person who pays most money for a type would not meet the requirements.
Another case from the [iczn-list] mailing list from Sep 2014: Argilophilus marmoratus Eisen, 1893 (Annelida) was established with two subspecies, but without nominal subspecies, so it had no original types for the nominal species. In contrast to the molluscan cases, this name was made available under Art. 12.2.6, it was the only included species to a new genus.
My initial proposal from 20 Oct 2008 that the types should by default be those of the first variant in a list, is probably an unnecessary restriction. So perhaps better to have it in this form:
18.104.22.168 If a species-group name was exclusively based on the description or indication of one or more distinct variants (e.g. by name, letter or number), the type series includes the specimens referred to as distinct variants.
An example of a case where the subordinate variants had names:
Zieten (1830) established the gastropod name Paludina multiformis without description, with four figures representing four distinct subspecies: Paludina multiformis turbiniformis (Plate 30 Fig. 7), P. m. trochiformis (Fig. 8), P. m. intermedia (Fig. 9), P. m. planorbiformis (Fig. 10). The type series of P. multiformis consists of all specimens depicted in Fig. 7-10, and other collection specimens Zieten included at this occasion in P. multiformis.
The wording of the Article should be refined to avoid misunderstandings.
The term "included by the author in the new nominal taxon" could be interpreted in a form that the thoroughness of study or the time that elapsed between study or the act of writing a description would be a criterion. This was suggested by Doug Yanega in a discussion on the [Taxacom] listserver in May 2013 (type series of Homo sapiens).
I argued that only presence and absence can be a criterion, not thoroughness of study or the time between study and the act of writing down something.
In Art. 72.1.1 a different definition of the type series is given, which seems in contrast to the one given in Art. 72.4.1.
My proposal: to say "all the specimens on which the author bases a new nominal species-group taxon", and to align the definition with the ones given the Glossary ("type series") where this expression is also used.
The same applies to the French Code.
It would be useful to add an example to get this point clear and avoid misinterpretations in the future.
Linnaeus (1758) established the nominal taxon Sciurus vulgaris for the Eurasian red squirrel. All live and dead specimens of Eurasian red squirrels that Linnaeus ever saw before 1758 formed directly part of the type series. However only those for which a documentation is provided that Linnaeus actually saw the specimen, can be selected as lectotype.
Many authors substituted specific names when they established new genera, in the obvious but never "expressed" intention to avoid tautonymy. These cases could be caught by an additional rule to say clearly that such names shall be regarded as new replacement names if a tautonymous name was mentioned at that occasion (this would not catch cases like Salamandra maculosa because the tautonymous name was not mentioned there). The rule would just say that the presence of an available tautonymous specific name in the synonymy would be decisive, regardless if this was the correct name or a misspelling.
Example 3: Montfort (1810) established a new gastropod genus Imperator and included one species Imperator aureolatus, with description and a synonym given as "Trochus imperator Gmelin". The correct name would have been Trochus imperialis Gmelin, 1791.
Under such a rule the last sentence would be: Imperator aureolatus was established as a new replacement name for Trochus imperialis Gmelin, 1791 because a tautonymous name was cited in the synonymy by Montfort 1810.
|FranciscoWelterSchultes||72.7 once again
The confusion about the precise definition of the requirements which must be met for the presence of a new replacement name is broader than I had previously thought.
Falkner & Proschwitz 2009: 173 (Heldia 5 (6): 171-177, two important western European malacologists and key coordinators of the CLECOM group) argued in a case where a new species had been described and 5 names from pervious sources were given in the synonymy, 3 of them with question marks, that regardless of the question marks (under reference to Art. 15.1) the new name must be considered as a new replacement name for one of the 5 synonyms. Since the author did not specify which synonym, this must by default be the oldest one of the five synonyms. The author of the new name had probably cited these names because he thought that these might be the same species, for future scientists to check. So Falkner & Proschwitz 2009 made up a new rule which said that any author who establishes a new name and cites an available name in the synonymy, for no matter which reason, establishes automatically a new replacement name for the synonym (and the new name would automatically adopt its types). The requirement of an expressed statement demanded in Art. 72.7 is not followed by these authors.
In the early post-Linean insect literature I saw inumerous equivalent cases, where previous names were listed as synonyms of new names (the more so, tentatively with question marks). We must consider that the rules of precedence was not a binding convention until at least the 1840s.
I also experienced that Russian and Ukrainian malacologists seem to follow Art. 72.7 strictly and do not recognise new replacement names on the absence of expressed statements. The best example is Xerolenta obvia (Menke, 1828), a well-known and widely distributed species in Europe, established as a new replacement name without expressed statement but with indirect evidence in the work itself, is recognised as an available name by western authors and the CLECOM group (who claim themselves as authorative for European mollusc nomenclature), but not by Russian and Ukrainian authors who use the next available name Helix candicans for this species.
So what we have is obviously a case of which teams or regions in the world have more power than others. I would prefer to keep the rule in the strict form the Russians and Ukrainians authors interpret it, simply because this prevents arbitrary interpretations of the rules as published by Falkner & Proschwitz 2009.
Should be more explicit or have examples, it is not clear where the limits for the term "cited" should be set. The early authors did not give collection numbers of holotypes when they mentioned a synonym. They eventually figured specimens, some mentioned where their material came from, others gave only very general lists of species deposited in museum collections. It is difficult to define the limit.
I would propose that pure lists of names of species present in a museum collection without restrictions to certain lots should not be recognized as citing specimens, but lists of specimens collected in a particular and well delimited expedition yes.
Setting the limit there would be useful because localities are usually extremely important in molluscs (it seems that most cases under Art. 11.6 occur in molluscs). I must admit that I tend to accept the term "cited specimens" much easier if localities were given. A short description ("bigger" or "striated") is usually much less useful and should not suffice.
Rossmässler 1838 mentioned Helix sericea synonym Helix rubiginosa (Gastropoda) and argued that this synonym was only used for small specimens, and he gave a figure of such a specimen. Schmidt 1853 used Helix rubiginosa for a species and gave a bibliographical reference to Rossmässler 1838, making the synonym available under Art. 11.6. The specimen figured by Rossmässler is the holotype, other specimens in Rossmässler's collection were implicit, but not cited.
Férussac 1807 mentioned Cyclas lacustris synonym Cyclas ovalis (Bivalvia) and stated that he had material from Lot and Lot-et-Garonne. These would be the types if C. ovalis was validated later.
Strobel 1855 mentioned Achatina aciculoides synonym veneta (Gastropoda) in a report of a collection by C. Belloti in Lesina (= Hvar island, Dalmatia). Only Belloti's specimens from Hvar would be the types, should veneta have been validated later.
Menke 1828 mentioned Helix olivieri var. a synonym Helix parumcincta (Gastropoda), in a general list of species of his collection. No reference to particular specimens was given, and it is unclear which specimens were meant and from where they came from. Menke published a list of species, and did not cite particular specimens.
Should contain a cross-reference to Art. 13.1.3.
This would be helpful because there is no proper chapter about new replacement names, so looking for the rules for new replacement names is a hard job.
|SvenKullander||72.4.5 can be deleted. After all any specimen can be designated neotype, and paratypes/cotypes/allotypes are not name-bearing and as such not regulated by this Code. They are purely taxonomic, and taxonomists can call them whatever they like, including not calling them anything.
I think it is important to get rid of the paratype concept entirely, because there are indeed taxonomists and other biologists who somehow believe that paratypes have nomenclatural status and their treatment in the Code, whereas not providing such status mentions them in a way that you suspect there is some more firm statement elsewhere in this long difficult to read tractate.
"72.4.5. When an author designates a holotype [Art. 73.1], then that action restricts the type series to that single specimen. Other specimens mentioned in the description do not have any nomenclatural status."
|SvenKullander||72.1.3. Should be modified to get rid of "paratypes", because paratypes are not regulated by the Code although 72.1 seems to say so.
"other specimens: those without a name-bearing function (paralectotypes [Arts. 73.2.2, 74.1.3]); see Glossary for definition)."
|SvenKullander||Recommendation 72A should be deleted. I suggest to change the allotype entry in the Glossary to reflect that allotype is a deprecated term occurring in previous Codes
A new passage should be added
22.214.171.124 If a species-group name was exclusively based on the description or indication of one or more distinct variants (e.g. by name, letter or number), the first mentioned variant in order of appearence provides the types for the main name, if not otherwise stated in the original publication.
Examples: Férussac 1821 established Helix lenticula (Gastropoda) and gave a short description only for a subordinate variant [alpha]. The types for this variant constitute the type series for Helix lenticula Férussac, 1821. Draparnaud (1805) established Helix striata and listed 9 variants [alpha] to [iota]. In the collection all types are preserved, but they refer exclusively to the 9 variants. The name-bearing types for the name Helix striata are those of the variant [alpha].
Such a passage is necessary because in malacology we have numerous cases of names that were based exclusively on subordinate variants and nobody knows how to interprete 72.4.1 (for example Falkner 2000). The problem affects important and widely used names such as Xerocrassa cretica (from Férussac, 1821 or Pfeiffer, 1841?) or Caracollina lenticula (from Férussac, 1821 or Michaud, 1831?). Previous decisions by the Commission contradicted each other (Op. 336 and 1924 for Oxychilus draparnaudi, a name that was taken without problems from Beck, 1837 although it had no main description and was based exclusively on variants; Op. 1690 for Lindholmiola barbata which was not taken from Férussac, 1821 but from Férussac, 1832).
It also makes no sense why a reference to a previously published description should make a name available (by indication), but not a reference to a simultaneously published description for a variant.
|FranciscoWelterSchultes||A new passage should be added:
"72.7.1. A new replacement name must be accompanied by an expressed statement that defines it as a new replacement name. The substituted name must be mentioned, and it must be clear from the contents why the name needed to be substituted."
Example 1: Salamandra maculosa Laurenti, 1768 (Amphibia) was obviously but not expressly established to replace Lacerta salamadra Linnaeus, 1758 to avoid tautonymy. Salamandra maculosa cannot be regarded as a new replacement name because of the lack of an expressed statement and because Lacerta salamandra Linnaeus, 1758 was not mentioned.
Example 2: Helix obvia Menke, 1828 (Gastropoda) was listed without description or any other comments as an available name with a synonym Helix neglecta Hartmann, 1821. On the same page Menke listed a name Helix neglecta Draparnaud, 1801. From external evidence we know that different species were meant. Helix obvia cannot be recognized as a new replacement name for Helix neglecta Hartmann, 1821 non Draparnaud, 1801 because of the lack of an expressed statement.
Such a passage is necessary because many names are regarded as new replacement names by various researchers. In these cases it is unclear which types should be taken. The term "expressly" in 72.7 is widely overlooked.