Article 32. Original spellings.
32.1. Definition. The "original spelling" of a name is the spelling used in the work in which the name was established.
32.2. Correct original spelling. The original spelling of a name is the "correct original spelling", unless it is demonstrably incorrect as provided in Article 32.5.
32.2.1. If a name is spelled in more than one way in the work in which it was established, then, except as provided otherwise in this Article, the correct original spelling is that chosen by the First Reviser [Art. 24.2.3] (or, if applicable, by an original author when acting as First Reviser [Art. 24.2.4]).
32.2.2. A justified emendation [Art. 33.2.2] is treated as though it is a correct original spelling (and therefore takes the authorship and date of the original publication [Art. 19.2]).
32.3. Preservation of correct original spelling. The correct original spelling of a name is to be preserved unaltered, except where it is mandatory to change the suffix or the gender ending under Article 34 (for treatment of emendations and incorrect subsequent spellings see Articles 32.5, 33.2, 33.3, 33.4).
32.4. Status of incorrect original spellings. An original spelling is an "incorrect original spelling" if it must be corrected as required in Article 32.5. An incorrect original spelling has no separate availability and cannot enter into homonymy or be used as a substitute name.
32.5. Spellings that must be corrected (incorrect original spellings).
32.5.1. If there is in the original publication itself, without recourse to any external source of information, clear evidence of an inadvertent error, such as a lapsus calami or a copyist's or printer's error, it must be corrected. Incorrect transliteration or latinization, or use of an inappropriate connecting vowel, are not to be considered inadvertent errors.
220.127.116.11. The correction of a spelling of a name in a publisher's or author's corrigendum issued simultaneously with the original work or as a circulated slip to be inserted in the work (or if in a journal, or work issued in parts, in one of the parts of the same volume) is to be accepted as clear evidence of an inadvertent error.
Examples. If an author in proposing a new species-group name were to state that he or she was naming the species after Linnaeus, yet the name was published as ninnaei, it would be an incorrect original spelling to be corrected to linnaei. Enygmophyllum is not an incorrect original spelling (for example of Enigmatophyllum) solely on the grounds that it was incorrectly transliterated or latinized.
32.5.2. A name published with a diacritic or other mark, ligature, apostrophe, or hyphen, or a species-group name published as separate words of which any is an abbreviation, is to be corrected.
18.104.22.168. In the case of a diacritic or other mark, the mark concerned is deleted, except that in a name published before 1985 and based upon a German word, the umlaut sign is deleted from a vowel and the letter "e" is to be inserted after that vowel (if there is any doubt that the name is based upon a German word, it is to be so treated).
Examples. nuñezi is corrected to nunezi, and mjøbergi to mjobergi, but mülleri (published before 1985) is corrected to muelleri.
22.214.171.124. In a compound species-group name published as separate words that are deemed to form a single word [Art. 11.9.5], the component words are to be united without a hyphen.
Examples. bonae spei becomes bonaespei, terrae novae becomes terraenovae.
126.96.36.199. In a compound species-group name published as words united by an apostrophe or a hyphen, the words are to be united by removing the mark concerned (but see Article 188.8.131.52.3).
Examples. d'urvillei becomes durvillei, striato-radiatus becomes striatoradiatus.
184.108.40.206. In a compound species-group name of which the first part consists of an abbreviation in Latin letters, or a Latin letter or a number of Latin letters qualifying the second part, whether or not separated by punctuation or a hyphen, the parts are to be united as follows.
220.127.116.11.1. If any of the separate parts is an abbreviation of a name (or part of the name) of a place or a saint, it is to be written in full and united without any intervening mark.
Examples. s. johannis, s-johannis, st. johannis, and sti johannis become sanctijohannis; s. catharinae and variants become sanctaecatharinae; n. hollandiae is corrected to novaehollandiae.
18.104.22.168.2. If the abbreviation represents a title, function, rank or honour for the person named in the species-group name, it is to be omitted.
Example. R.P.Podae, a specific name dedicated to the Reverendissimus Pater (Most Reverend Father) Poda, becomes podae.
22.214.171.124.3. If the first element is a Latin letter used to denote descriptively a character of the taxon, it must be retained and connected to the remainder of the name by a hyphen.
Example. c-album, in Polygonia c-album, so named because a white mark on the wing of the butterfly is similar to the letter c.
126.96.36.199.4. If the first element is a Latin letter or group of Latin letters not identifiable as fitting into the preceding three categories, punctuation (if any) must be deleted and the components united.
Example. j-beameri, a specific name dedicated to Jack Beamer, becomes jbeameri.
188.8.131.52. In a species-group name first published with an initial upper-case letter the initial letter must be replaced with a lower-case letter; in a genus-group or family-group name, or name of a taxon above the family group, first published with a lower-case initial letter the initial letter must be replaced with an upper-case letter.
184.108.40.206. In a compound species-group name of which the first part consists of a numeral (representing a number, numerical adjective or numerical adverb), the numeral is to be written in full as a Latin word and united with the remainder without any intervening mark.
Example. 10-lineata becomes decemlineata.
220.127.116.11. In the case of a genus-group name or a species-group name first published in a Latin text and which because of the grammatical requirements of the Latin text is written otherwise than in the nominative singular, the spelling of the genus-group name is to be corrected to the nominative singular, and that of the species-group name corrected if necessary.
Examples. See the examples of "Diplotoxae" corrected to Diplotoxa and "Pavidam" corrected to pavida (Musca pavida) given in Articles 11.8.1 and 11.9.2 respectively.
32.5.3. A family-group name is an incorrect original spelling and must be corrected if it
18.104.22.168. has an incorrectly formed suffix [Art. 29.2], or
22.214.171.124. is formed from an unjustified emendation of a generic name (unless the unjustified emendation has become a substitute name), or
126.96.36.199. is formed from an incorrect subsequent spelling of a generic name [Art. 35.4.1], or
188.8.131.52. is formed from one of two or more original spellings of a genus-group name which was not that selected by the First Reviser [Art. 24.2.3].
Preamble | Articles 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 | Glossary Appendices Constitution
|FranciscoWelterSchultes||Art 32.5.4 (proposed)
Once again the v/u problem was mentioned in a thread at the [iczn-list] listserver in Dec 2015 by the example of the Linnean 1758 name Lacerta Igvana, its original spelling to be corrected to Lacerta iguana.
|FrankKrell||Art. 184.108.40.206. should be modified respecting linguistic traditions and procedures regarding umlauts in non-German languages. We have to explore how those languages transscribe their umlauts if umlauts cannot be used, but at least Hungarian inserts an e after the vowel for both their short and long umlauts. Other languages with umlauts are Swedish, Norwegian, Turkish, Finnish, Azerbaijani, Estonian, Karelian, Sami languages, maybe others. Apart from Art. 220.127.116.11. concerning names published before 1985, we should add a Recommendation for the formation of new names after personal names covering the treatment of umlauts, i.e. insertion of an e after the vowel, and this not only for German names. This Recommendation could go in Art. 31 (if it stays an Article - I would be in favor to transform all Articles dealing with Latin grammer into Recommendations).
See two threads on the [iczn-list] mailing list 30 July 2009 and 09 Dec 2010. Miguel Alonso Zarasaga posted a different proposal (09 Dec 2010) which might also be discussed and eventually considered. I maintain my proposal to change the Article from 06 Aug 2009 (see above), unmodified.
The French version of the Article should be aligned with the English version, it currently has a substantially different meaning (and is certainly not in agreement with current and traditional practice).
|FranciscoWelterSchultes||Art. 18.104.22.168. should be modified.
The example "ninnaei" and "Enygmophyllum" should be inserted immediately before 22.214.171.124.
"126.96.36.199. The correction of a spelling of a name in a publisher's or author's corrigendum issued simultaneously with the original work is to be accepted as clear evidence of an inadvertent error. If published in a journal, a multivolume work or a work issued in parts or fascicles, the publication date for the corrigendum must not exceed 1 year after the name was established."
The French version of this article should be translated accurately.
Examples: Linnæus 1758 established Cardium muricatum (Bivalvia) on p. 679, and corrected this name to Cardium aculeatum on p. 824 (emendanda) issued simultaneously. The correct original spelling must be Cardium aculeatum.
Linné 1766 (p. 123) established Vultur Albiulla (Aves) in the first part of a multivolume work Systema naturæ, 12th edition, volume 1. In 1767 the second part of the same volume appeared, where Linné corrected V. Albiulla on the last page (errata) to V. Albicilla. The correct spelling of the name must be Vultur albicilla Linné, 1766.
The circulated slip should not be mentioned because either this is part of the original work (when issued simultaneously), or it was issued months or years later and then provokes disputes and misunderstandings, in any case the simultaneous date is important and not the binding technique of the book (the French version "un encart inséré dans le travail" translates "a sheet inserted in the work"). The expression "circulated slip" created also a conflict with Art. 4 because the term "slip" is undefined and can provoke a misunderstanding that such a slip would not need to be printed and typewriting could be sufficient (such a case was raised in the taxacom mailing list, 11/2009).
A problem is that the expressions "volume" and "part" are not well defined in terms of time spans (French version translated "volume", the French expression for volume is "tome"). It would not make much sense if a correction a few weeks later was not accepted because the next journal issue would have another volume number, but in another journal a correction 4 years later was accepted because the two issues were parts 1 and 6 of the same so-called volume. Some multivolume works were issued subsequently over many decades, their fascicles belonged to the same so-called volume (Systematisches Conchylien-Cabinet is an example, with 400 fascicles belonging to the same so-called volume issued in the course of 80 years).
The date of publication of an errata sheet should not exceed 1 year, this seems to be generally accepted practice in zoology.
|FranciscoWelterSchultes||Art. 32.4.5, exceptions and limits
For names for which orthographic conventions are undecided or unclear and for which various spellings can be used, the correct spelling must be taken from the original source. This applies frequently to names of non-Latin origin.
Examples: Names dedicated to Jhering/Ihering can be spelled either way and the original spelling must not be corrected. Names beginning with io/jo, iu/ju must generally not be corrected, the original source is decisive for the spelling (ionicus/jonicus, iota/jota, iudaica/judaica).
This is necessary because some cases are not covered by the expression "typesetting conventions" and must be addressed more explicitely. In questionable cases the spelling should always follow the original source.
|FranciscoWelterSchultes||Insert a new Article 32.5.4.
32.5.4. Use of v instead of u or u instead of v in classical Latin typesetting must be corrected to postclassical Latin typesetting. Use of initial J instead of initial I must be corrected (to I) if this was due to typesetting conventions.
Callidivm Fabricius, 1775 (Coleoptera) becomes Callidium.
Sphaerivm Scopoli, 1777 (Bivalvia) becomes Sphaerium.
Argvs Poli, 1791 (Bivalvia) becomes Argus.
Cancer Vca Linné, 1767 (Crustacea) becomes Cancer uca.
Leptura vcranica Laxmann, 1770 (Coleoptera) becomes Leptura ucranica.
Nais elingvis Müller, 1774 (Annelida) becomes Nais elinguis.
Gordius inqvilinus Müller, 1774 (Nematomorpha) becomes Gordius inquilinus.
Cardivm casertanvm Poli, 1791 (Bivalvia) becomes Cardium casertanum.
Mvsca aestiua Müller, 1764 (Diptera) becomes Musca aestiva.
Jberellus Hesse, 1908 (Gastropoda) becomes Iberellus.
Jnopsis Felder, 1874 (Lepidoptera) becomes Inopsis.
Jschnognatha Felder, 1874 (Lepidoptera) becomes Ischnognatha.
Jsoctenia Felder, 1874 (Lepidoptera) becomes Isoctenia.
Jrcinia Nardo, 1833 (Porifera) becomes Ircinia.
|FranciscoWelterSchultes||Art. 188.8.131.52.1. should be modified.
184.108.40.206.1. If any of the separate parts is an abbreviation of a name (or part of the name) of a place or a saint, it is to be written in full and united without any intervening mark. The connecting vowel for the sait depends on the sex of the person (ae for females, i for males). If the original work mandates an incorrect connecting vowel, the incorrectness must be maintained. Other incorrect spellings for sanct- must also be maintained as in the original, and not misinterpreted as abbreviations.
Eudryas Stae. Johannis Walker, 1856 (Lepidoptera) becomes sanctaejohannis, not sanctijohannis.
Papilio santa-marthae Joicey & Talbot, 1821 (Lepidoptera) becomes santamarthae.
Agrotis sanctmoritzi Bang-Haas, 1906 (Lepidoptera) must not be corrected to sanctimoritzi.
Argynnis novascotiae McDunnough, 1935 (Lepidoptera) must not be corrected to novaescotiae.
|FranciscoWelterSchultes||Art. 220.127.116.11 should be modified.
18.104.22.168. In a compound species-group name of which the first part consists of a numeral (representing a number, numerical adjective or numerical adverb), the numeral is to be written in full as a Latin word and united with the remainder without any intervening mark. The Latin words to be used are the following:
1 uni-, 2 bi-, 3 tri-, 4 quadri-, 5 quinque-, 6 sex-, 7 septem-, 8 octo-, 9 novem-, 10 decem-, 11 undedim-, 12 duodecim-, 13 tredecim- (not tridecim-), 14 quattuordecim- (not quatuordecim-), 15 quindecim-, 16 sedecim- (not sexdecim-), 17 septendecim- (not septemdecim-), 18 octodecim- (not duodeviginti-), 19 novendecim- (not unusdeviginti-, not novemdecim-), 20 viginti-, 21 vigintiunus- (not unusetviginti-), 22 vigintiduo- (not duoetviginti-), 23 vigintitres- (not tresetviginti-), 24 vigintiquattuor- (not quattuoretviginti-), 25 vigintiquinque- (not quinqueetviginti-), 26 vigintisex- (not sexetviginti-), 27 vigintiseptem- (not septemetviginti-), 28 vigintiocto- (not octoetviginti, not duodetriginti-), 29 vigintinovem- (not novemetviginti-, not unusdetriginti-), 30 triginti-, 32 trigintiduo- (not duoettriginti-), 40 quadraginti-, 100 centem-.
If a numeral is spelled out in the original work and not in agreement with the numbers given here, the original spelling must be maintained.
This modification will be useful for those who do not know Latin and who do not know that there are differences between Classical and Postclassical Latin (Latin dictionaries are usually in Classical Latin, while early zoologists preferred postclassical Latin). The proposed Latin words seem to represent the broadest consensus in all disciplines.
|FranciscoWelterSchultes||I have never seen a case of a font where ae ligature and oe ligature cannot be distinguished, but I have seen cases where we had to look very very closely and compare with other words in the same work. Also in Sherborn and even in published ICZN Opinions (example Lymnaea Lamarck, 1799) the ligatures were confounded. In all cases that I verified, I found that previous authors simply had not looked closely enough.
|GaryRosenberg||We need a rule to address cases where the original spelling is ambiguous because of typographical conventions ("v" for "u" at the beginning of a Latin word) or limitations (ae ligature cannot be distinguished from oe ligature).