[#A A] [#B B] [#C C] [#D D] [#E E] [#F F] [#G G] [#H H] [#I I] [#K K] [#L L] [#M M] [#N N] [#O O] [#P P] [#R R] [#S S] [#T T] [#U U] [#V V] [#W W] [#Z Z]
Abbreviations used in the Glossary
Anchor(A)abbreviation, n. A shortened form of a word or title. In zoological works genus-group names are often abbreviated to one or two letters; such abbreviations should always be followed by a full stop (period), and they should not be used on the first mention of the name. The same applies to abbreviations of specific names cited in trinominal names of subspecies.
aberration, ab., n. A term used to denote a class of individuals within a species. A name which explicitly refers to an aberration is unavailable.
act, nomenclatural, n. A published act which affects the nomenclatural status (q.v.) of a scientific name or the typification of a nominal taxon.
available nomenclatural act. One that is published in an available work.
invalid nomenclatural act. Any available nomenclatural act that is not valid under the provisions of the Code.
unavailable nomenclatural act. One published in an unavailable work.
valid nomenclatural act. One that is to be accepted under the provisions of the Code (i.e. the earliest available nomenclatural act, relevant to a particular name or nominal taxon, which does not contravene any provision of the Code).
adopt, v. To use an unavailable name as the valid name of a taxon in a way which establishes it as a new name with its own authorship and date [Arts. 11.6, 45.5.1., 22.214.171.124].
adoption, n. Of a Part of the List of Available Names in Zoology: the acceptance of the Part by the Commission as specified in Article 79.
agreement, gender, n. Agreement in grammatical gender between a generic name and Latin or latinized adjectival or participial species-group names combined with it originally or subsequently.
aggregate, n. A group of species, other than a subgenus, within a genus; or a group of species within a subgenus; or a group of subspecies within a species. An aggregate may be denoted by a species-group name interpolated in parentheses [Art. 6.2].
allotype, n. See under type.
anagram, n. A name formed by the rearrangement of the letters of a word or words.
animal, n. For the purposes of the Code the term "animal" includes the Metazoa and protistan taxa whenever they are or have been treated as animals for nomenclatural purposes.
animals, domesticated, n. Animals distinguished from wild progenitors by characters resulting from the selective actions (deliberate or not) of humans (e.g. Canis familiaris, Felis catus, Bos taurus).
anonymous, a. (1) Of a work: one that does not state the name(s) of the author(s). (2) Of a name or nomenclatural act: one of which the authorship cannot be determined from the work itself [Art. 50.1]; see Article 14 for the availability of anonymous names or nomenclatural acts. (3) Of an author: one whose identity cannot be determined from the work itself.
arbitrary combination of letters. See combination of letters, arbitrary.
Articles, n. The mandatory provisions of the Code.
as such. Being strictly what has been cited (e.g. "a photograph as such" is an illustration on light-sensitive paper, not one printed in a work).
auctorum (auct. or auctt.). A Latin term meaning "of authors", often given to indicate that a name is used in the sense of a number of subsequent authors and not in its (different) sense as established by the original author.
author (pl. authors), n. The person(s) to whom a work, a scientific name, or a nomenclatural act is attributed [Arts. 50, 51] (see also anonymous). For the purposes of the Code, if a work is attributed to an editor, or an official (e.g. Secretary), or a body (e.g. a committee or a commission), only that person(s) actually responsible for the work, name, or act, is deemed to be the author [Art. 50].
availability, n. (available, a.) (1) Of a work: see under work. (2) Of a name: see under name. (3) Of a nomenclatural act: see under act.
Anchor(B)bibliographic reference, n. See reference, bibliographic.
binomen (pl. binomina), n., or binominal name. The combination of two names, the first being a generic name and the second a specific name, that together constitute the scientific name of a species [Art. 5.1]. Any interpolated names [Art. 6] are not counted as components of a binomen.
binominal nomenclature. See under nomenclature.
Binominal Nomenclature, Principle of. See Principle of Binominal Nomenclature.
Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature, n. The official periodical of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature.
Anchor(C)case, n. (1) A nomenclatural problem presented to the Commission for a ruling (see Declaration, Direction, Opinion). (2) An inflectional form of nouns and adjectives in grammar, of which the nominative and genitive are used in zoological nomenclature.
caste, n. In social insects, a group of individuals, belonging to a particular species or subspecies, differing in form and often in function from other groups of individuals within the same species or subspecies (e.g. in bees: the workers, drones, and queens).
change, mandatory. (1) A change in the spelling of the suffix of a family-group name required by Article 34.1. (2) A change in the ending of a specific or subspecific name required by Article 34.2.
Chapter, n. A primary division of the Code.
character, n. Any attribute of organisms used for recognizing, differentiating, or classifying taxa.
Code, n. (1) An abbreviation of the title International Code of Zoological Nomenclature; (2) a reference to that and other International Codes of taxonomic nomenclature (i.e. those regulating the scientific names used in bacteriology and botany).
collection, n. An assemblage of specimens compiled and maintained for purposes of study and/or display.
collective group, n. See under group.
combination, n. The association of a generic name and a specific name to form the name of a species; or of a generic name with a specific name and a subspecific name to form the name of a subspecies.
new combination. The first combination of a generic name and a previously established species-group name.
combination of letters, arbitrary, n. A scientific name that was not based by its author on an existing word of a language.
Commission, n. An abbreviation meaning "The International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature" [Art. 77.1].
compound, a. Of a word, or a scientific name: one that is formed by the union of two or more basic components (i.e. excluding prefixes and suffixes) [Art. 126.96.36.199], written as one word except as provided in Article 188.8.131.52.3.
concept, hypothetical, n. A taxonomic concept that when published contained no animal then known to exist in nature, past or present, but only in the mind of the author whether a prediction or not [Art. 1.3.1].
conditional, a. (1) Of the proposal of a name or a type fixation: one made with stated reservations [Art. 15.1]. (2) Of the inclusion of a taxon in another taxon at a higher rank: made with stated reservations [Art. 51.3.3].
connecting vowel. See vowel, connecting.
conserve, v. To set aside or modify any provision of the Code so as, e.g. (1) to preserve or permit the use of a name as a valid name by removing the obstacles to such use, or (2) to preserve the use of a name in a taxonomic sense that would otherwise be incorrect, or (3) to deem a work to be published or available despite its not satisfying the normal criteria. In each case conservation is by a ruling of the Commission using its plenary power.
conserved name. See under name.
conserved work. See under work.
Constitution, n. An abbreviation of the title "The Constitution of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature".
Coordination, Principle of. See Principle of Coordination.
corrigendum (pl. corrigenda), n. A note published by an author, editor, or publisher of a work, expressly to cite one or more errors or omissions in that work together with their correction.
cotype, n. See under type.
Anchor(D)date of publication, n. Of a work (and of a contained name and nomenclatural act): the date on which copies of the work become available by purchase or free distribution. If the actual date is not known, the date to be adopted is regulated by the provisions of Article 21.2-7.
Declaration, n. A provisional amendment to the Code, published by the Commission [Arts. 78.3.2, 80.1].
deem, v. To consider or rule something to be what it may or may not be.
definition, n. A statement in words that purports to give those characters which, in combination, uniquely distinguish a taxon [Arts. 12, 13].
description, n. A statement in words of taxonomic characters of a specimen or a taxon [Arts. 12, 13].
original description. The description of a nominal taxon when it is established.
designation, n. (designate, v.) The nomenclatural act of an author or the Commission in fixing, by an express statement, the name-bearing type of a newly or previously established nominal genus, subgenus, species, or subspecies. See also act, fixation, and indication.
original designation. The designation of the name-bearing type of a nominal taxon when it is established. [Arts. 68.1, 73.1.1].
subsequent designation. The designation of the name-bearing type of a nominal taxon published after the nominal taxon was established [Arts. 69.1, 74, 75].
diacritic mark. See mark, diacritic.
diagnosis, n. A statement in words that purports to give those characters which differentiate the taxon from other taxa with which it is likely to be confused.
differentiate, v. To distinguish something (e.g. a taxon) from others [Art. 13]. See also definition.
Direction, n. A term now abandoned; under previous editions of the Code, a statement published by the Commission, giving the result of a vote completing or correcting a ruling given in an Opinion. Directions have been replaced by Official Corrections (q.v.).
Disclaimer, n. A statement in a work, by an author, editor or publisher, that (1) the entire work or (2) all or specified names and nomenclatural acts in it are to be excluded for purposes of zoological nomenclature.
division, n. (1) A rank that if treated as a division of a genus or subgenus is deemed to be of subgeneric rank for the purposes of nomenclature [Art. 10.4]. (2) A taxon at the rank of division.
Anchor(E)elide, v. To deliberately omit one or more letters within a word (as in Article 184.108.40.206).
elimination, fixation by. See fixation by elimination.
emendation, n. (1) Any intentional change in the original spelling of an available name [Art. 33.2.]. (2) An available name formed by intentionally changing the original spelling of an available name.
justified emendation. The correction of an incorrect original spelling [Art. 33.2.2].
unjustified emendation. Any emendation other than a justified emendation [Art. 33.2.3].
ending, gender, n. (1) The letters at the end of a genus-group name (which must be, or be treated as, a singular noun in the nominative case - Article 11.8) which indicate the gender of the word; see Article 30.2 for the genders indicated by the endings of words not found in Latin or Greek dictionaries. (2) The letters at the end of a Latin or latinized adjectival species-group name which must agree in gender form with the gender of the generic name with which the species-group name is combined (see Article 31.2).
ending, genitive, n. (1) The letters at the end of a species-group name which, if the name is the genitive case of the name of one or more persons, or a place, host or other entity associated with the taxon, form the genitive case and reflect the gender and number (e.g. -i if of a man, -ae if of a woman, -orum if of men or of men and women together, -arum if of women) [Art. 31.1.2]. (2) The letters at the end of the genitive case of a Latin or Greek generic name which are deleted [Article 29.3] to form a stem, before adding a suffix to form a family-group name.
error, n. In a name, or other word: an incorrect spelling.
copyist's error. An incorrect spelling made in copying.
inadvertent error. An incorrect spelling, such as a lapsus calami, or a copyist's or a printer's error, not intended by the original author [Art. 32.5.1].
printer's error. An incorrect spelling made in type-setting (often called typographical error).
establish, v. Of a name or nominal taxon: to make the name of a nominal taxon available by satisfying the requirements of the Code.
excluded, a. (1) Denoting a work, name or act which is to be ignored for purposes of zoological nomenclature, either (a) under the provisions of the Code or (b) because of a disclaimer [Arts. 8.2, 8.3]. (2) Denoting a specimen or component which has been explicitly omitted or removed from a type series or a name-bearing type [Arts. 72.4.1, 73.1.5].
extant, a. (1) Of a taxon: having living representatives. (2) Of a specimen: still in existence.
extinct, a. Of a taxon: having no living representatives.
Anchor(F)family (pl. families), n. (1) A rank within the family group between superfamily and subfamily. (2) A taxon at the rank of family.
family group, n. In the hierarchy of classification, the highest-ranking group of taxa whose names are fully regulated by the Code. The family group includes taxa at the ranks of superfamily, family, subfamily, tribe, and any other rank below superfamily and above the genus group that may be required, such as subtribe [Art. 35.1].
family name or name of a family. See under name.
field, taxonomic, n. A taxon or a set of taxa (e.g. "Crustacea: Amphipoda and Isopoda"); see taxonomic group, under group.
First Reviser. See Reviser, First.
First Reviser, Principle of the. See Principle of the First Reviser.
fixation, n. A general term for the determination of a name-bearing type, whether by original designation or by any other means. See also designation [Arts. 68.1, 69.1, 73-75], monotypy [Arts. 68.3, 69.3] and tautonymy [Arts. 68.4, 68.5].
fixation by elimination. The supposed fixation of a type species by the subsequent transfer of all but one of the originally included nominal species from a genus. Not in itself an available method of type fixation [Art. 69.4; but see Article 69.1.1].
form, n. (1) A term that if published after 1960 is deemed to denote infrasubspecific rank but that if published before 1961 is to be interpreted according to Article 45.6.3-4. (2) Those individuals of a species or subspecies differing, in a stated way, from other individuals within the taxon (e.g. larval and adult forms, male and female forms, ecological forms, and seasonal forms).
formulae, zoological, n. Modifications of available names throughout a taxonomic group by the addition of a standard prefix or suffix in order to indicate that the taxa named are members of that group [Art. 1.3.7]. Zoological formulae are excluded from the provisions of the Code. The suffixes of family-group names denote ranks, not taxonomic groups, and do not form zoological formulae.
Anchor(G)gender, n. Of a genus-group name: a grammatical property (masculine, feminine or neuter) that affects the way in which Latin or latinized adjectival or participial species-group names are to be spelled, since the gender form of such a species-group name must agree with the gender of the generic name with which it is combined. See ending, gender.
generic name, or genus name, or name of a genus. See under name.
genotype. See under type.
genus (pl. genera), n. (1) The rank within the genus group next below the family group and above subgenus. (2) A taxon at the rank of genus.
genus group, n. In the hierarchy of classification the group of taxa ranked between the family group and the species group. The genus group includes taxa at the ranks of genus and subgenus [Art. 42.1]. Names for collective groups, and for ichnotaxa established at the genus-group level, are treated as genus-group names [Art. 42.2.1].
Greek, a. or n. Ancient Greek.
group, n. An assemblage of taxa. See also family group, genus group, and species group.
collective group. An assemblage of species, or stages of organisms (e.g. eggs or larvae), that cannot be allocated with confidence to nominal genera. Names proposed or used for collective groups are treated as genus-group names but special provisions apply to them (see Article 42.2.1).
taxonomic group. A taxon or assemblage of taxa; e.g. the taxonomic group Insecta consists of all insects and the taxa in which they are classified. See taxonomic field, under field.
Anchor(H)hapantotype. See under type.
hectographing, n. The making of copies of text and figures from a prepared gelatine surface to which the original has been transferred.
hierarchy, taxonomic, n. A system of classification based on a sequence of taxonomic categories ranked by their increasing levels of inclusiveness - see taxon.
holotype, n. See under type.
homonym, n. (1) In the family group: each of two or more available names having the same spelling, or differing only in suffix, and denoting different nominal taxa. (2) In the genus group: each of two or more available names having the same spelling, and denoting different nominal taxa. (3) In the species group: each of two or more available specific or subspecific names having the same spelling, or spellings deemed under Article 58 to be the same, and established for different nominal taxa, and either originally (primary homonymy) or subsequently (secondary homonymy) combined with the same generic name [Art. 53.3]. For examples, see Article 53.1 for family-group names, Article 53.2 for genus-group names, and Article 53.3 for species-group names.
junior homonym. Of two homonyms: the later established, or in the case of simultaneous establishment the one not given precedence under Article 24.
primary homonym. Each of two or more identical specific or subspecific names established for different nominal taxa and originally combined with the same generic name [Art. 57.2]. For variant spellings deemed to be identical see Article 58.
secondary homonym. Each of two or more identical specific or subspecific names established for different nominal taxa and originally combined with different generic names but subsequently combined with the same generic name [Art. 57.3]. For variant spellings deemed to be identical see Article 58.
senior homonym. Of two homonyms: the first established, or in the case of simultaneous establishment the one given precedence under Article 24.
homonymy, n. (1) The relationship between homonyms. (2) The state of being homonymous.
Homonymy, Principle of. See Principle of Homonymy.
hybrid, n. The progeny of two individuals belonging to different taxa. For the treatment of names given to hybrids and to taxa of hybrid origin see Articles 1.3.3, 17, 23.8.
hyphen, n. A mark, -, used for punctuation and for joining together (1) two parts of a compound specific or subspecific name if the first part is a single Latin letter [Art. 220.127.116.11.3], or (2) the first two words of an expression if used to modify a third (e.g. genus-group names, contrasting with names of the genus group).
hypothetical concept. See concept, hypothetical.
Anchor(I)ichnotaxon, n. See under taxon.
inappropriate name. See under name.
incertae sedis. A Latin term meaning "of uncertain taxonomic position".
index (pl. indexes), n. A list arranged in a particular order (usually alphabetical) of the names or subjects in a work, usually with references to the pages on which they are treated.
Index, Official. See Official Index.
indication, n. A reference to previously published information, or a published act, which in the absence of a definition or description allows a name proposed before 1931, and that otherwise satisfies the relevant provisions of Articles 10 and 11, to be available [Art. 12.2]. See also Article 13.6.1.
information, taxonomic, n. Descriptions, illustrations and other material relating to taxa. Unlike names or nomenclatural acts, such information may be taken, for the purposes of making a name available, from published (and not disclaimed) works which are not available, e.g. because they were published before 1758, did not consistently apply binominal nomenclature, or have been suppressed (but not ruled to be treated as unpublished) by the Commission.
infraspecific name. See under name.
infrasubspecific, a. Of a rank, taxon, or name: one at a rank lower than that of a subspecies. Names of infrasubspecific entities (q.v.) are not regulated by the Code [Art. 1.3.4].
infrasubspecific entity, n. (1) Taxa below the rank of subspecies. (2) Specimen(s) within a species differing from other specimens in consequence of intrapopulational variability (e.g. opposite sexes, castes, gynandromorphs and intersexes, aberrant individuals, age and seasonal forms, variants of noninterrupted variability or polymorphism, differing generations).
infrasubspecific name. See under name.
interpolated name. See under name.
invalid, a. Of an available name or a nomenclatural act: one that is not valid under the Code.
Anchor(K)kingdom, n. The highest ranked category employed in the taxonomic hierarchy. (Previous editions of the Code referred to a single taxon "Animalia", not widely accepted today, at the rank of kingdom).
Anchor(L)lapsus calami (sing. and pl.), n. A Latin term meaning "slip (or slips) of the pen", i.e. an error (or errors) made by an author in writing a text, such as a misspelling of a name; contrasted with copyist's or printer's errors [Art. 32.5.1].
Latin, a. or n. Includes both ancient and mediaeval Latin (for wholly modern words latinized to form scientific names, see latinize).
latinize, v. To give Latin form and characteristics (including a Latin ending or a Latin suffix) to any word which is not Latin.
lectotype, n. See under type.
List of Available Names in Zoology, n. The cumulative term for those parts of the List of Available Names in Zoology which have been adopted by the Commission under Article 79.
List, Official. See Official List.
Anchor(M)mandatory change. See change, mandatory.
mark, diacritic, n. A mark to indicate different pronunciations of a letter or a different letter (such as an accent, cedilla, tilde, umlaut, etc.).
Metazoa, n. Those multicellular organisms which for nomenclatural purposes are treated as animals.
mimeographing, v. A method of producing numerous copies of text (and figures) by means of ink applied through a stencil.
misapply, v. To apply, deliberately or otherwise, a name in a sense which is not correct under the provisions of the Code (e.g. in a manner not in accord with the name-bearing type).
misidentify, v. To mistakenly attribute a specimen to a particular taxon.
monotypy, n. The situation arising (1) when an author establishes a nominal genus or subgenus for what he or she considers to be a single taxonomic species and denotes that species by an available name (the nominal species so named is the type-species by monotypy) [Art. 68.3]; or (2) when an author bases a nominal species-group taxon on a single specimen but does not explicitly designate it as holotype (holotype by monotypy; see Article 73.1.2).
subsequent monotypy. The situation arising when a nominal genus or subgenus was established before 1931 without any included nominal species, and when only a single taxonomic species denoted by an available name was first subsequently referred to it [Art. 69.3].
multiple original spelling. See under spelling. Anchor(N)name, n. (1) (general) A word, or ordered sequence of words, conventionally used to denote and identify a particular entity (e.g. a person, place, object, concept). (2) Equivalent to scientific name (q.v.). (3) An element of the name of a species-group taxon: see generic name, subgeneric name, specific name, subspecific name.
available name. A scientific name applied to an animal taxon that is not excluded under Article 1.3 and that conforms to the provisions of Articles 10 to 20.
binominal name. See binomen.
collective-group name. The name of a collective group (see under group).
compound name. See compound.
conserved name. A name otherwise unavailable or invalid that the Commission, by the use of its plenary power, has enabled to be used as a valid name by removal of the known obstacles to such use (see conserve).
excluded name. A name that under Article l.3 cannot be an available name, or one that has been disclaimed (see Articles 8.2, 8.3).
family name or name of a family. A scientific name of a taxon at the rank of family. Such names have the suffix -IDAE.
family-group name. A scientific name of any taxon of the family group.
generic name, or genus name, or name of a genus. (1) A scientific name of a taxon at the rank of genus. (2) The first name of a binomen or a trinomen [Art. 5].
genus-group name. A scientific name of any genus or subgenus, including names for collective groups and for ichnotaxa at the genus-group level.
inappropriate name. A name that denotes a character, a quality, or an origin not possessed by the taxon bearing that name.
infraspecific name. A general term for any name below the rank of species. The term includes subspecific and infrasubspecific names.
infrasubspecific name. A name applied to an infrasubspecific entity.
interpolated name. A name placed within parentheses (1) after a generic name to denote a subgenus, (2) after a genus-group name to denote an aggregate of species, or (3) after a specific name to denote an aggregate of subspecies [Art. 6]. Names used in this way are not counted as one of the names in a binomen or trinomen.
invalid name. An available name which either (1) is objectively invalid (i.e. it is a junior homonym or a junior objective synonym of a potentially valid name, or must be rejected under the provisions of the Code, or has been suppressed by the Commission), or (2) is subjectively invalid (because it is considered subjectively to be a junior synonym or to be inapplicable to a particular taxonomic taxon).
new replacement name (nomen novum). A name established expressly to replace an already established name. A nominal taxon denoted by a new replacement name (nomen novum) has the same name-bearing type as the nominal taxon denoted by the replaced name [Arts. 67.8, 72.7]. See emendation, substitute name.
new scientific name. A scientific name, available or unavailable, when first proposed for a taxon.
potentially valid name. An available name which is not objectively invalid.
rejected name. (1) A name which, under the provisions of the Code, cannot be used as a valid name and which is set aside in favour of another name. (2) A name which, as a matter of taxonomic judgment, is either treated as a junior subjective synonym (q.v.) of a name used as valid or is believed not to be applicable to the taxon under consideration.
replacement name. See new replacement name (nomen novum) and substitute name.
scientific name. Of a taxon: a name that conforms to Article 1, as opposed to a vernacular name. The scientific name of a taxon at any rank above the species group consists of one name; that of a species, two names (a binomen); and that of a subspecies, three names (a trinomen) [Arts. 4 and 5]. A scientific name is not necessarily available.
species name or name of a species. A scientific name of a taxon at the rank of species. A binomen, the combination of a generic name and a specific name (an interpolated name, such as a subgeneric name or an interpolated species-group name [Art. 6], when used, is not counted as one of the names in a binomen).
species-group name. A specific name or a subspecific name.
specific name. The second name in a binomen and in a trinomen [Art. 5].
subfamily name or name of a subfamily. A scientific name of taxon at the rank of subfamily. Such names have the suffix -INAE.
subgeneric name, or subgenus name, or name of a subgenus. A scientific name of a taxon at the rank of subgenus.
subspecies name or name of a subspecies. (1) A scientific name of a taxon at the rank of subspecies. (2) A trinomen, the combination of a generic name, a specific name, and a subspecific name (an interpolated name, such as a subgeneric name or an interpolated species-group name [Art. 6] is not counted as one of the names in a trinomen).
subspecific name. The third name in a trinomen [Art. 5.2].
substitute name. Any available name, whether new or not, used to replace an older available name. See emendation, new replacement name (nomen novum), synonym.
subtribe name or name of a substribe. A scientific name of a taxon at the rank of subtribe. Such names have the suffix -INA.
superfamily name or name of a superfamily. A scientific name of a taxon at the rank of superfamily. Such names have the suffix -OIDEA.
suppressed name. See suppression.
tautonymous name. See tautonymy.
tribe name or name of a tribe. The scientific name of a taxon at the rank of tribe. Such names have the suffix -INI.
trinominal name. See trinomen.
unavailable name. A scientific name that does not conform to Articles 10 to 20, or that is an excluded name under Article 1.3.
uninominal name. A scientific name consisting of one word and used for a taxon of higher rank than the species group [Art. 4.1].
valid name. The correct name for a taxonomic taxon, i.e. the oldest potentially valid name of a name-bearing type which falls within an author's concept of the taxon (but see under Principle of Priority).
vernacular name. A name of an animal or animals in a language used for general purposes as opposed to a name proposed only for zoological nomenclature.
zoological name. The scientific name of an animal taxon in binominal nomenclature.
name-bearing type. See under type.
neotype. See under type.
nomen dubium (pl. nomina dubia), n. A Latin term meaning "a name of unknown or doubtful application".
nomen novum (pl. nomina nova), n. A Latin term equivalent to "new replacement name".
nomen nudum (pl. nomina nuda), n. A Latin term referring to a name that, if published before 1931, fails to conform to Article 12; or, if published after 1930, fails to conform to Article 13. A nomen nudum is not an available name, and therefore the same name may be made available later for the same or a different concept; in such a case it would take authorship and date [Arts. 50, 21] from that act of establishment, not from any earlier publication as a nomen nudum.
nomen oblitum (pl. nomina oblita), n. A Latin term (meaning "forgotten name") applied after 1 January 2000 to a name, unused since 1899, which as a result of an action taken under Article 23.9.2 does not take precedence over a younger synonym or homonym in prevailing usage; the younger name which takes precedence over the nomen oblitum may be called a nomen protectum (q.v.). The term nomen oblitum was also applied to a disused senior synonym rejected between 6 November 1961 and 1 January 1973 under Article 23b of the Code editions then in force (see Article 23.12.2). Nomina oblita remain available names; see Articles 23.9 and 23.12 for conditions controlling their use as valid names.
nomen protectum, n. A Latin term (meaning "protected name") applied to a name which has been given precedence over its unused senior synonym or senior homonym relegated to the status of nomen oblitum (q.v., and see Article 23.9.2).
nomenclatural, a. Relating to nomenclature.
nomenclatural act. See act, nomenclatural.
nomenclatural status, n. Of a name, nomenclatural act or work: its standing in nomenclature (i.e. its availability or otherwise, and in the case of a name its spelling, the typification of the nominal taxon it denotes, and its precedence relative to other names).
nomenclature, n. A system of names, and provisions for their formation and use.
binominal nomenclature. The system of nomenclature in which a species, but no taxon of any other rank, is denoted by a combination of two names (a binomen, q.v.).
zoological nomenclature. The system of scientific names for animal taxa and the provisions for the formation, treatment, and use of those names.
nominal taxon (e.g. nominal family-group taxon; nominal genus). See under taxon.
nominate, a. A term used in previous editions of the Code for nominotypical.
nominotypical taxon. See under taxon.
noun phrase, n. A compound word consisting of a noun combined with another noun or modifying adjective, the compound being treated as a noun in apposition; if the adjective is the final element in a species-group name, its ending is determined by the gender of the noun it modifies (and not by that of the generic name with which the species-group name is combined). For examples, see Article 31.2.1.
Anchor(O)objective, a. Demonstrably true, not a matter of individual opinion; for contrast with subjective.
Official Correction, n. A correction, issued by the Commission, of an error or omission in a previously published Opinion [Art. 80.4]. See also Direction.
Official Index, n. An abbreviated title for any of the four Indexes, maintained and published by the Commission, citing works or names that have been rejected by rulings of the Commission. For the status of names cited in the Indexes, and of names and nomenclatural acts in works cited in the Indexes, see Article 80.7. The full titles of the Indexes are:
Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Works in Zoological Nomenclature.
Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Family-Group Names in Zoology.
Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Generic Names in Zoology.
Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Specific Names in Zoology.
Official List, n. An abbreviated title for any of the four Lists, maintained and published by the Commission, citing available works or names that have been ruled upon in the Opinions of the Commission. For the status of works, names, and nomenclatural acts in the Lists see Article 80.6. The full titles of the Lists are:
Official List of Works Approved as Available for Zoological Nomenclature.
Official List of Family-Group Names in Zoology.
Official List of Generic Names in Zoology.
Official List of Specific Names in Zoology.
(See also List of Available Names in Zoology).
offprint, n. See under separate.
Opinion, n. A formal publication by the Commission containing a ruling that applies, interprets, or suspends provisions of the Code in a case affecting one or more stated names, nomenclatural acts or works. An Opinion states how the Code is to be applied or interpreted, or the course to be followed, in the particular case [Art. 80.2-5].
original publication. See under publication.
originally included nominal species, n. Of a nominal genus-group taxon: the nominal species deemed to be originally included under Article 67.2.
Anchor(P)paralectotype, n. See under type.
paratype, n. See under type.
Part of the List of Available Names in Zoology, n. (q.v.). A list, adopted by the Commission under Article 79, of available names in a major taxonomic field.
plenary power, n. The power of the Commission to suspend or modify the application of Articles 1 to 76 of the Code in the way which it considers necessary to serve the interests of stability and universality of nomenclature in a particular case. See Articles 78 and 81.
precedence, n. The order of seniority of available names or nomenclatural acts determined (1) by application of the Principle of Priority as specified in Article 23, or (2), in the case of simultaneously published names or acts, as specified in Article 24, or (3) by a ruling of the Commission using its plenary power.
prefix (pl. prefixes), n. A letter or group of letters attached before the basic part of a word and usually used only in forming derived words and not as a separate word. See also compound and suffix.
preprint, n. A work published, with its own specified date of publication (imprint date), in advance of its later reissue as part of a collective or cumulative work. Preprints may be published works for the purposes of zoological nomenclature. See separate.
primary homonym. See under homonym.
Principle of Binominal Nomenclature, n. The principle that the scientific name of a species, and not of a taxon at any other rank, is a combination of two names (a binomen, q.v.); the use of a trinomen (q.v.) for the name of a subspecies and of uninominal names for taxa above the species group is in accord with the Principle. See Articles 5, 11.4.
Principle of Coordination, n. The principle that within the family group, genus group or species group a name established for a taxon at any rank in the group is deemed to be simultaneously established with the same author and date for taxa based on the same name-bearing type at other ranks in the group [Arts. 36, 43, 46].
Principle of the First Reviser, n. The principle that the relative precedence of two or more names or nomenclatural acts published on the same date, or of different original spellings of the same name, is determined by the First Reviser [Art. 24.2].
Principle of Homonymy, n. The principle that the name of each taxon must be unique. Consequently a name that is a junior homonym of another name must not be used as a valid name [Art. 52].
Principle of Priority, n. The principle that the valid name of a taxon is the oldest available name applied to it (taking into consideration the other provisions of Article 23), provided that the name is not invalidated by any provision of the Code or by any ruling by the Commission [Art. 23].
Principle of Typification, n. The principle that each nominal taxon in the family group, genus group or species group has, actually or potentially, a name-bearing type fixed to provide the objective standard of reference by which the application of the name is determined [Art. 61] (see typification).
printing on paper, n. The production of numerous identical copies of text or illustrations on paper. For the purposes of the Code, photography (i.e. the production of images on light-sensitive paper) does not constitute printing [Art. 9.2].
priority, of a name or nomenclatural act, n. Seniority fixed by the date of availability.
Priority, Principle of. See Principle of Priority.
proposal, n. (1) An action, whether successful or unsuccessful, to establish a nominal taxon or name or to carry out a nomenclatural act (q.v.). (2) An application to the Commission under Article 79 for the adoption of a Part of the List of Available Names in Zoology.
conditional proposal. See conditional.
protistan, n. (also a.) An organism classified in the Protista. Some such organisms (e.g. those formerly classified as Protozoa) are usually treated as animals for the purposes of nomenclature, and when so treated their names are regulated by the Code [Art. 1.1.1].
provisions (sing. provision), n. Term equivalent to rules.
publication, n. (1) Any published work. (2) The issuing of a work conforming to Articles 8 and 9.
date. See under date of publication.
original publication. (1) The work in which a name or nomenclatural act was first published. (2) Of a name or nomenclatural act: publication for the first time.
publish, v. (1) To issue any publication. (2) To issue a work that conforms to Article 8 and is not excluded by the provisions of Article 9. (3) To make public in a work, conforming to (2) above, any names or nomenclatural acts or information affecting nomenclature.
Anchor(R)rank, n. The level, for nomenclatural purposes, of a taxon in a taxonomic hierarchy (e.g. all families are for nomenclatural purposes at the same rank, which lies between superfamily and subfamily). The ranks of the family group, the genus group, and the species group at which nominal taxa may be established are stated in Articles 10.3, 10.4, 35.1, 42.1 and 45.1.
Recommendation, n. An advisory statement in an Article of the Code. Recommendations are denoted by the number of the Article, are not mandatory and are distinguished from the mandatory provisions by a capital letter following the number of the Article (thus, Recommendation 40A).
reference, bibliographic, n. A published citation referring to a publication.
reinstate, n. With reference to a name previously rejected as being a junior secondary homonym: to treat it as a valid name if the conditions of Article 59.4 are met.
reject, v. To set aside, in accord with the provisions of the Code and, in the case of a name, taxonomic judgement, (1) a work for the purposes of zoological nomenclature, or (2) a name in favour of another name. See rejected name, rejected work, suppression.
rejected work. See under work.
replacement name. See under name.
reprint, n. For the purposes of the Code, the same as a separate (q.v.).
Reviser, First, n. The first author to cite names (including different original spellings of the same name) or nomenclatural acts published on the same date and to select one of them to have precedence over the other(s). See Article 24.
rules (sing. rule), n. The Articles of the Code but not titles, Recommendations, and Examples. The rules are mandatory. A term equivalent to provisions.
ruling by the Commission, n. A decision by the Commission published in an Opinion [Art. 80.2], Declaration [Art. 80.1], or Direction (a term formerly, but not now, used in the Code).
Anchor(S)scientific name. See under name.
secondary homonym. See under homonym.
section, n. (1) A rank that if treated as a division of a genus or subgenus is deemed to be of subgeneric rank for the purposes of nomenclature [Art. 10.4]. (2) A taxon at the rank of section.
sensu. A Latin term meaning "in the sense of". Often used to refer to the usage of a name by a (cited) author in a sense different from that of the original author or some other previous author. See also auctorum.
sensu lato (s. lat., or s.l.). A Latin term meaning "in the wide sense". Contrast with sensu stricto (s. str.).
sensu stricto (s. str., or s.s.). A Latin term meaning "in the strict sense". Often used in conjunction with a name when referring to the nominal taxon in the narrow sense of its subordinate nominotypical taxon (contrast with sensu lato (s. lat.)).
separate, n. A copy (reprint or offprint) of a work contained in a periodical, book or other larger work, intended for distribution (usually privately by the author(s)) detached from the larger work which contains it but without its own specified date of publication (imprint date). The advance distribution of separates after 1999 does not constitute publication for purposes of zoological nomenclature. See preprint.
species (sing. and pl.), n. (1) The rank next below the genus group; the basic rank of zoological classification. (2) A taxon at the rank of species.
species group, n. In the zoological classification, the lowest-ranking group of taxa the names of which are regulated by the Code. The species group includes all taxa at the ranks of species and subspecies [Art. 45.1].
species inquirenda (pl. species inquirendae), n. A Latin term meaning a species of doubtful identity needing further investigation.
species name or name of a species. See under name.
specific name. See under name.
specimen, n. An example of an animal, or a fossil or work of an animal, or of a part of these. See Article 72.5 for the kinds of specimen eligible to be name-bearing types of nominal species-group nominal taxa.
specimen, teratological. An abnormal specimen or a monstrosity [Art. 1.3.2].
spelling, n. The choice and arrangement of the letters that form a word.
correct original spelling. The spelling of an available name when it is established, unless it is demonstrably incorrect under Article 32.5.
incorrect original spelling. An original spelling that is incorrect [Arts. 32.4 and 32.5].
incorrect subsequent spelling. Any change in the spelling of an available name other than a mandatory change or an emendation [Art. 33.3].
multiple original spellings. Two or more different original spellings for the same name [Art. 32.2.1].
original spelling. The spelling or one of the spellings of a name employed when it is established [Arts. 32.1, 32.2.1].
subsequent spelling. Any spelling of an available name other than an original spelling [Art. 33].
variant spellings. Different spellings of specific or subspecific names that are deemed to be identical for the purposes of the Principle of Homonymy [Art. 58].
stem (of a name), n. For the purposes of the Code, (1) that part (or the whole) of the name of the type genus to which is added a family-group suffix (see Article 29), or (2) that part of a name to which is added a genitive ending (q.v.) when forming a species-group name which is a noun in the genitive case [Art. 31.1.2].
subfamily (pl. subfamilies), n. (1) A family-group rank below family. (2) A taxon at the rank of subfamily.
subfamily name or name of a subfamily. See under name.
subgeneric name, or subgenus name, or name of a subgenus. See under name.
subgenus (pl. subgenera), n. (1) The genus-group rank below genus. (2) A taxon at the rank of subgenus.
subjective, a. Depending on judgement, a matter of individual opinion; for contrast with objective. See subjective synonym, under synonym.
subordinate taxon. See under taxon.
subspecies (sing. and pl.), n. (1) The species-group rank below species; the lowest rank at which names are regulated by the Code. (2) A taxon at the rank of subspecies.
subspecies name or name of a subspecies. See under name.
subspecific name. See under name.
substitute name. See under name.
subtribe, n. (1) A family-group rank below tribe. (2) A taxon at the rank of subtribe. Names of subtribes have the suffix -INA.
suffix (pl. suffixes), n. A letter or group of letters (1) added to the stem of a word, such as -IDAE in family names, -INAE in subfamily names [Art. 29.2]; or (2) forming a Latin suffix such as -ella or -istes [Art. 30] in some generic names [Art. 30.2]. See compound, ending and prefix.
superfamily (pl. superfamilies), n. (1) A family-group rank above family; the highest rank at which names are fully regulated by the Code. (2) A taxon at the rank of superfamily. Names of superfamilies have the suffix -OIDEA.
suppression, n. (suppress, v.) A ruling by the Commission, using its plenary power, (1) that a work is to be deemed, for nomenclatural purposes, as unpublished, or that names and acts in it are not available; or (2) that an available name is never to be used as valid because (a) it is available only for the purpose of homonymy ("partial suppression") or (b) it is not available for the purposes of priority and homonymy ("total suppression"; but a totally suppressed species-group name may still denote the type species of a nominal genus or subgenus [Art. 81.2.1]); or (3) that an available name is only to be used as valid under stated conditions (e.g. when not considered a synonym of a particular later name) ("conditional suppression").
suprageneric, a. Of a taxon: one at a rank higher than genus.
synonym, n. Each of two or more names of the same rank used to denote the same taxonomic taxon.
junior synonym. Of two synonyms: the later established, or in the case of simultaneous establishment that not given precedence under Article 24. See also Article 23.9.
objective synonym. Each of two or more synonyms that denote nominal taxa with the same name-bearing type, or (in the cases of family-group and genus-group taxa) that denote nominal taxa with name-bearing types whose own names are themselves objectively synonymous.
senior synonym. Of two synonyms: the earlier established, or in the case of simultaneous establishment that given precedence under Article 24. See also Article 23.9.
subjective synonym. Each of two or more names whose synonymy is only a matter of individual opinion, i.e. it is not objective. See also Article 61.3.1.
synonymy, n. (1) The relationship between synonyms. (2) A list of synonyms.
syntype, n. See under type.
Anchor(T)tautonymy, n. (tautonymous, a.) The use of the same word for the name of a genus-group taxon and for the species-group name of one of its included species and/or subspecies.
absolute tautonymy. The identical spelling of a generic or subgeneric name and the specific or subspecific name of one of its originally included nominal species or subspecies [Arts. 18, 68.4].
Linnaean tautonymy. The identical spelling of a new generic or subgeneric name established before 1931 and a pre-1758 name cited as a synonym of only one of the species or subspecies originally included in that genus [Art. 68.5].
virtual tautonymy. The nearly identical spelling, or the same origin or meaning, of a generic or subgeneric name and the specific or subspecific name in a binomen or trinomen. Not a term regulated by the Code [but see Recommendation 69A.2].
taxon, (pl. taxa), n. A taxonomic unit, whether named or not: i.e. a population, or group of populations of organisms which are usually inferred to be phylogenetically related and which have characters in common which differentiate (q.v.) the unit (e.g. a geographic population, a genus, a family, an order) from other such units. A taxon encompasses all included taxa of lower rank (q.v.) and individual organisms. The Code fully regulates the names of taxa only between and including the ranks of superfamily and subspecies.
ichnotaxon, n. A taxon based on the fossilized work of an organism, including fossilized trails, tracks or burrows (trace fossils) made by an animal. See also work of an animal.
infrasubspecific taxon. A taxon at lower rank than that of subspecies. The names of such taxa are not regulated by the Code.
nominal taxon. A concept of a taxon which is denoted by an available name (e.g. Mollusca, Diptera, Bovidae, Papilio, Homo sapiens). Each nominal taxon in the family, genus or species groups is based on a name-bearing type (although in the latter two groups such a type may not have been actually fixed).
nominotypical taxon. The nominal taxon at a subordinate rank within the family group, the genus group, or the species group that contains the name-bearing type of a divided taxonomic taxon of that group. See Articles 37, 44 and 47.
subordinate taxon. A taxon at a lower rank than the taxon of the same coordinate group with which it is compared.
taxonomic taxon. A taxon (e.g. family, genus, species) including whatever nominal taxa and individuals a zoologist at any time considers it to contain in his or her endeavour to define the boundaries of a zoological taxon (q.v.). A taxonomic taxon is denoted by the valid name determined from the available names of its included nominal taxa.
zoological taxon. A natural taxon of animals (which may, or may not, have had a name applied to it).
taxonomy, n. (taxonomic, a.) The theory and practice of classifying organisms. See taxonomic information, taxonomic taxon.
teratological specimen. See under specimen.
text, official. Of the Code: A text, in any language, which has been authorized by the Commission. All official texts are equivalent in force, meaning and authority [Art. 87].
topotype. See under type.
transliteration, n. (transliterate, v.) Literal transcription; the replacement of the letters of one alphabet by equivalent letters of another. Scientific names must be written in Latin letters, hence names formed from words that are not Latin may require transliteration.
tribe, n. (1) A family-group rank below subfamily. (2) A taxon at the rank of tribe. Names of tribes have the suffix -INI.
trinomen (pl. trinomina), n., or trinominal name. The combination of a generic name, a specific name, and a subspecific name, that together constitute a scientific name of a subspecies [Art. 5.2].
type, n. A term used alone, or forming part of a compound term, to denote a particular kind of specimen or taxon.
allotype. A term, not regulated by the Code, for a designated specimen of opposite sex to the holotype [Recommendation 72A].
cotype. A term not recognized by the Code, formerly used for either syntype or paratype, but that should not now be used in zoological nomenclature [Recommendation 73E].
genotype. A term not recognized by the Code, formerly used for type species, but that should not now be used in zoological nomenclature [Recommendation 67A].
hapantotype. One or more preparations consisting of directly related individuals representing distinct stages in the life cycle, which together form the name-bearing type in an extant species of protistan [Arts 72.5.4, 73.3]. A hapantotype, while a series of individuals, is a holotype that must not be restricted by lectotype selection; however, if a hapantotype is found to contain individuals of more than one species, components may be excluded until it contains individuals of only one species [Art. 73.3.2].
holotype. The single specimen (except in the case of a hapantotype, q.v.) designated or otherwise fixed as the name-bearing type of a nominal species or subspecies when the nominal taxon is established.
lectotype. A syntype designated as the single name-bearing type specimen subsequent to the establishment of a nominal species or subspecies [Art. 74].
name-bearing type. The type genus, type species, holotype, lectotype, series of syntypes (which together constitute the name-bearing type) or neotype that provides the objective standard of reference whereby the application of the name of a nominal taxon can be determined.
neotype. The single specimen designated as the name-bearing type of a nominal species or subspecies when there is a need to define the nominal taxon objectively and no name-bearing type is believed to be extant. If stability and universality are threatened, because an existing name-bearing type is either taxonomically inadequate or not in accord with the prevailing usage of a name, the Commission may use its plenary power to set aside that type and designate a neotype. paralectotype. Each specimen of a former syntype series remaining after the designation of a lectotype [Art. 72.1.3, Recommendation 74F]. paratype. Each specimen of a type series other than the holotype [Recommendation 73D]. syntype. Each specimen of a type series (q.v.) from which neither a holotype nor a lectotype has been designated [Arts. 72.1.2, 73.2, 74]. The syntypes collectively constitute the name-bearing type. topotype, n. (topotypic, a.) A term, not regulated by the Code, for a specimen originating from the type locality of the species or subspecies to which it is thought to belong, whether or not the specimen is part of the type series.
type fixation. See fixation.
type genus, n. The nominal genus that is the name-bearing type of a nominal family-group taxon.
type horizon, n. The geological stratum from which the name-bearing type of a nominal species or subspecies was collected.
type host, n. The host species with which the name-bearing type of a nominal species or subspecies was associated [Recommendation 76A.1].
type locality, n. The geographical (and, where relevant, stratigraphical) place of capture, collection, or observation of the name-bearing type of a nominal species or subspecies [Art. 76.1, Recommendation 76A].
type series, n. The series of specimens, defined in Articles 72.4 and 73.2, on which the original author bases a new nominal species-group taxon. In the absence of a holotype designation, any such specimen is eligible for subsequent designation as the name-bearing type (lectotype); pending lectotype designation, all the specimens of the type series are syntypes and collectively they constitute the name-bearing type. Excluded from the type series are any specimens that the original author expressly excludes or refers to as distinct variants, or doubtfully includes in the taxon.
type species, n. The nominal species that is the name-bearing type of a nominal genus or subgenus.
type specimen. A term used in previous editions of the Code for a holotype, lectotype or neotype, or for any syntype; also used generally for any specimen of the type series (q.v.).
typification, n. The fixation of a name-bearing type of a nominal taxon so as to provide an objective standard of reference for the application of the name of a taxon (see Principle of Typification).
Anchor(U)unavailability, n. (unavailable, a.) Of a name, nomenclatural act or work: see under those entries.
uninominal, a. Consisting of a single name (e.g. names of the family group and of the genus group) [Art. 4].
usage, prevailing, n. Of a name: that usage of the name which is adopted by at least a substantial majority of the most recent authors concerned with the relevant taxon, irrespective of how long ago their work was published.
Anchor(V)valid, a. (validity, n.) Of an available name or a nomenclatural act: one that is acceptable under the provisions of the Code and, in the case of a name, which is the correct name of a taxon in an author's taxonomic judgment.
validated, a. A term previously used in the sense of conserved.
variant spelling. See under spelling.
variety, n. A term that if published after 1960 is deemed to denote infrasubspecific rank but that if published before 1961 is to be interpreted according to Article 45.6.3-4.
vernacular name. See under name.
vowel, connecting, n. A vowel that joins two words to make a single word (see Article 58.12), but when the second of two combined words begins with a vowel, no connecting vowel is needed.
Anchor(W)word, compound. See compound.
work, n. Any text or illustration, whether published, unpublished, or carrying a disclaimer (q.v.)
anonymous work. A published work in which the name(s) of its author(s) cannot be determined from the contents of the work.
available work. A published work in which, under the provisions of the Code, or by a ruling of the Commission, names or nomenclatural acts may be established.
conserved work. A work that the Commission has ruled to be an available work.
published work. See publish.
rejected work. Any work included by the Commission in the Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Works in Zoological Nomenclature.
suppressed work. A work that the Commission has ruled to be unpublished or unavailable.
unavailable work. A published work (q.v.) in which, under the provisions of the Code, or by a ruling of the Commission, names or nomenclatural acts cannot be established. Such works include those which (1) were issued before 1758 [Art. 3], or (2) do not consistently apply the Principle of Binominal Nomenclature (q.v.) [Art. 11.4], or (3) are published anonymously after 1950 [Art. 14], or (4) carry a disclaimer (q.v.), or (5) the Commission has ruled to be unavailable. For the use of information affecting nomenclature in unavailable works, see Articles 12.2.1, 12.2.7 and 13.1.2.
unpublished work. A work that is not published within the meanings of Articles 8 and 9, or which the Commission has ruled to be treated as unpublished.
work of an animal, n. The result of the activity of an animal (e.g. burrows, borings, galls, nests, worm tubes, cocoons, tracks), but not part of the animal. The term applies to trace fossils (see ichnotaxon, under taxon) but does not apply to such fossil evidence as internal moulds, external impressions, and replacements. For availability of names based upon the work of animals see Articles 1.2.1, 1.3.6, 10.3, 12.2.8.
Anchor(Z)zoological taxon. See under taxon.
zoologist, n. Anyone, regardless of profession, who studies animals.
[#A A] [#B B] [#C C] [#D D] [#E E] [#F F] [#G G] [#H H] [#I I] [#K K] [#L L] [#M M] [#N N] [#O O] [#P P] [#R R] [#S S] [#T T] [#U U] [#V V] [#W W] [#Z Z]
The following abbreviations have been used in the Glossary: Table of abbreviations used in the Glossary
Article, Articles of the Code
for example (Latin: exempli gratia)
that is (Latin: id est)
which see (Latin: quod vide)
["Preamble"] | Articles [:Article1:1] [:Article2:2] [:Article3:3] [:Article4:4] [:Article5:5] [:Article6:6] [:Article7:7] [:Article8:8] [:Article9:9] [:Article10:10] [:Article11:11] [:Article12:12] [:Article13:13] [:Article14:14] [:Article15:15] [:Article16:16] [:Article17:17] [:Article18:18] [:Article19:19] [:Article20:20] [:Article21:21] [:Article22:22] [:Article23:23] [:Article24:24] [:Article25:25] [:Article26:26] [:Article27:27] [:Article28:28] [:Article29:29] [:Article30:30] [:Article31:31] [:Article32:32] [:Article33:33] [:Article34:34] [:Article35:35] [:Article36:36] [:Article37:37] [:Article38:38] [:Article39:39] [:Article40:40] [:Article41:41] [:Article42:42] [:Article43:43] [:Article44:44] [:Article45:45] [:Article46:46] [:Article47:47] [:Article48:48] [:Article49:49] [:Article50:50] [:Article51:51] [:Article52:52] [:Article53:53] [:Article54:54] [:Article55:55] [:Article56:56] [:Article57:57] [:Article58:58] [:Article59:59] [:Article60:60] [:Article61:61] [:Article62:62] [:Article63:63] [:Article64:64] [:Article65:65] [:Article66:66] [:Article67:67] [:Article68:68] [:Article69:69] [:Article70:70] [:Article71:71] [:Article72:72] [:Article73:73] [:Article74:74] [:Article75:75] [:Article76:76] [:Article77:77] [:Article78:78] [:Article79:79] [:Article80:80] [:Article81:81] [:Article82:82] [:Article83:83] [:Article84:84] [:Article85:85] [:Article86:86] [:Article87:87] [:Article88:88] [:Article89:89] [:Article90:90] | ["Glossary"] ["Appendices"] ["Constitution"]